Curitiba – a living example of how a conventional city, resembles a garbage dump, to make eco-model city, which became the city of the future. Many people want happiness, smiles around me, strong family, trusted partners, healthy children! It is necessary to put things in order around them, and all this will certainly appear.
The Brazilian city of Curitiba has developed a model of successful operation and development, learning to deal with a wide range of issues from transport and economic – to the social and environmental. The experience of this city, to learn and adopt different countries – both neighboring and distant from it in the regions of the world, including more developed.
In 1971 the architect Jaime Lerner became mayor of Curitiba, capital of the southeastern state of Parana in Brazil. The urban population, which is typical of the area, multiply like mushrooms: in 1942 their number was 120 thousand. Man, and when Jaime became mayor, exceeded one million. By 1997 the city’s population reached 2.3 million. People. And that is typical of those places, most of these people lived in favellah – truschebah where homes made of cardboard and other material at hand.
Soon one of the main headaches Jaime became garbage. City garbage trucks could not even get to the areas favell, since there was no streets. And as a result, grow a heap of dust, which bred rodents and spread all kinds of diseases.
Since there was no money to create a “normal” conditions, namely bulldozers to clear the area and pave the streets, Jayme team offered another way out.
On the Limits favell put huge metal containers. They stuck wide labels that read “glass”, “paper”, “plastic”, “bio-waste”, etc. For those who could not read, they are also painted in different colors. Everyone who brought a bag full of assorted debris were given a bus ticket, and for biowaste were given a plastic card, which can be exchanged for a package of fresh fruit and ovoschey.
In recent years, the spread of most of the tickets involved in the private sector. 50% of tickets issued to its employees of the corporation. At the same time increased the proportion of fruit and vegetables in exchange for garbage. On holidays in exchange for “junk money” given holiday meals. School program for garbage collection enabled the notebooks of the poorest students.
Soon, tens of thousands of children cleaned the whole area, they quickly learned to recognize different types of plastic. And their parents began to use the bus tickets to get to the downtown area, where they worked.
From my point of view, Jaime Lerner simply invented new money. His bus tickets and cards for meals – a kind of additional currency. His program “Garbage that is not garbage” may well be dubbed “Trash that – your money.” Today, this process involves 70% of homes in Curitiba; 62 poorest district traded 11 thousand. Tons of garbage nearly a million bus tickets and 1,200 tons of food. Paper trash sent there for processing daily saves from felling trees in 1200.
It should be noted that the team Lerner did not aim to improve the monetary system. They are only used for the solution of the major problems of the current integrated approach, which spontaneously led to more consciousness valyuty.
Stamps and bus card for the store – not the only local money in Curitiba arising from this approach to garbage collection. For example, especially for the restoration of historic buildings, the creation of green areas and the construction of social housing and reduce the cost the city treasury was introduced another system. We called her solcriado (literally – an artificial surface), and here is how it works.
Like most cities, there is a detailed plan of urban areas, regulating the number of storeys of buildings. Curitiba also apply two rules: normal and maximum. For example, if the hotel with floor area of 10 000 sq.m. built in an area where normal is determined to be 10 floors, and the maximum – 15, and if the owner of the hotel wants to build 15 floors, it will have to buy another 50 000 sq.m. (5 × 10 000) on the market solcriado. The city itself is only plays the role of mediator, balancing supply and demand in this market. The proceeds will be sent directly to the restoration of the surrounding historic buildings. Thus, the owner of the hotel pays for the restoration of the house to get right to the add additional floors in a hotel – and the contents of the old fund in good condition is provided without any financial investments on the part of the city.
Another source of solcriado become green areas, where trees are protected. Several large public parks (there are 16 in the city) are fully funded in this way. The owner of large land received the right to develop one side of the street, provided that the other side will be the city park. Housing takes on added value when it is located next to the park, which is easily reached on foot, and the residents of Curitiba, there is another park where they could be poisoned at the weekend, and the city does not need to go into debt or raise taxes for the sake of it. Everybody wins.
The most interesting, from our point of view that the market itself has become a kind of solcriado additional currency, which allows Curitiba getting those public goods, for which other cities require traditional financing. In addition, when put into effect a new monetary system is well thought out, there is something more than money and economic activity. Today, the average salary resident of Curitiba about 3.5 times greater than the minimum in the country. However, its real gross income at the very least a further 30% increase (TS approximately 5 times higher than the minimum). And this difference of 30% appeared exclusively due to non-traditional “junk” form of money.
Another indicator is that Curitiba now has the most developed in the Brazilian system of social support and one of the most viable educational and outreach programs. Thus taxes in Curitiba are not higher than in the whole country.
The success of Curitiba cause internal immigration into it, so that the city’s population has grown faster than in the state of Parana and in the whole country. The practice of using the conventional national currency combined with a well thought out extra currency has been going on for over 25 years. This approach has allowed the city to reach the Third World living standards of developed countries over the lifetime of one generation.
The development strategy of Curitiba
• The use of public transport is encouraged. It allows public transport to be better and more convenient than private cars. For example, it moves faster thanks to original method of getting on the bus: passengers, using their bus tickets, run on a specially equipped bus stop, and when to stop the bus approaches, it opens internal compartments and large groups of people go out and come in a few seconds. No need to spend time or money to collect tickets.
Also for public transport were introduced special express routes, making the bus the most convenient and fastest means of public transport. A single fare allows a person to drive around the entire transport network, regardless of distance. It also provides integration with intra-transport systems. The real proof of the benefits of public transport is that it is preferred by most of the townspeople. Every fourth user of public transport owns a car, but traveling around the city chooses not to him. Thanks to an efficient public transport system in the downtown area have managed to create a few pedestrian streets, which include the main boulevard. These streets are concerts of local musicians, theatrical performances and festivals of children’s creativity.
• Normally, when the city’s population exceeds one million inhabitants, is needed to build the underground in order to avoid traffic congestion, and in the cities where daily produced more than 1,000 tons of solid waste is necessary to build a large plant for sorting and recycling musora.
Curitiba no one nor the other. Investing in the development of the local public transport system are only% of the costs for the construction of the metro. The savings amount Curitiba allow to equip its bus fleet of the most modern and environmentally friendly transport in the world.
• There exists a free university environment, which offers short courses builders, engineers, shopkeepers and taxi drivers. They talk about how their daily activities affect the environment. The building itself is a wonderful monument of architecture of the University, it is composed mainly of treated telephone poles and built on the territory, which now looks like an idyllic lake landscape, although in the past this place was abandoned kamenolomney.
• Curitiba is the only city in Brazil, the degree of contamination is now lower than in the 50-ies of XX century. Here, below the level of crime and higher levels of education compared to other cities in Brazil, it is the only city in the country that refuses to grant the federal government, because he solves his problems.
• The local botanical garden is divided on the site of the former city landfill, it serves as a recreation and research center. In addition, there are 16 parks – and each is dedicated to a particular topic. As a consequence, in Curitiba per inhabitant 52 sq.m. green areas. According to the norms of the United Nations it is considered ideal 48 sq.m. green space per person, and this level is hardly achievable (if achievable at all) in the cities, both first and third world. In addition, these parks is easily accessible using the public transport system, so that ordinary people can (yes they do) use all their preimuschestvami.
UN recognized eco-model city Curitiba.